INFLUENCE OF GREEN TOBACCO ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND LOCAL PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS
Belov G.V., Zakirova T.A., Talantbekova N.T.
Topicality. In the tobacco-growing farms of Kyrgyzstan, work with green leaves and dried tobacco raw materials is mostly done on home plots by women of reproductive age. Children of middle and high schools are attracted to the production. Preschoolers and junior schoolchildren are for a long time with mothers employed in production.
The work was aimed at assessing the physical development and state of the local protective mechanisms of the respiratory system in 100 children living in the tobacco farms of the Osh region. The comparison group consisted of 100 children of the same age living in horticultural and vegetable farms of the same districts.
The results of the study indicate a higher frequency of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the main group, their lag in physical development and a decrease in the protective mechanisms of the respiratory and immune system. Activation of lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the surface activity of nasal swabs and exhaled air condensate, an increase in neutrophils and eosinophils in smears of the nasal mucosa, an increase in serum IgM, IgG d were detected.
Recommendation. This testifies to the effect of tobacco on children during processing and storing it in local areas.
Key words: green tobacco disease, nicotine, children, physical development, surfactant, peroxidation, immunoglobulin
STATE OF IMMUNE REACTIVITY IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS WITH CARCINOSARCOMA WALKER 256 EXPOSED TO GENERAL HYPERTHERMIA
Vaskina E.A., Uzakov O.Zh., Efremov A.V.
The paper presents immunity indicators in rats with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma during the development of the tumor process and exposure to general hyperthermia. The data obtained indicate that the effect of general hyperthermia on the body of experimental animals with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma is accompanied by multidirectional changes in the parameters of the immune system both in the direction of their decrease and increase in various periods after hyperthermia. This may be due to the activation of endogenous regulatory systems that determine the body's immune reactivity.
Keywords: Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, humoral and cellular immunity, general hyperthermia.
ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ ПЛЕВРОДЕЗ БЕТАДИНОМ И ГЛЮКОЗОЙ У ПАЦИЕНТОВ С ТРАНССУДАТИВНЫМ ПЛЕВРАЛЬНЫМ ВЫПОТОМ ПРИ ХРОНИЧЕСКОЙ БОЛЕЗНИ ПОЧЕК
А.А. Егай, Б.Х. Бебезов, А.Т. Казакбаев, А.Э. Тентимишев, А.М. Фейгин
Transudative pleural effusion (PE) is most often encountered in patients with congestive heart failure, hepatic and renal failure, and especially in their terminal stages, as an indicator of the decompensation of the patient's condition. Chemical pleurodesis (CP) has been successfully used for several decades in patients with malignant PE, both with primary lesion of the pleura, and with its secondary lesion. The choice of an agent for pleurodesis should be based on its effectiveness, safety and availability. Despite the extensive study of this issue, the search for the ideal pleurosclerosant is still underway. The question of induction of pleurodesis in transudative effusions is all the more poorly understood. CP in our country was previously used only for its malignant nature; antineoplastic agents are traditionally administered intrapleurally. The purpose of this article is to assess the efficacy and feasibility of using betadine as a CP agent for PE in patients with CKD. Material and methods: the study was conducted on 6 patients with confirmed transudative PT in CKD. Results. All six patients (100%) managed to achieve a positive effect in the form of stopping the flow of fluid through the pleural drainage. Conclusion. Pleurodesis using betadine and glucose is an effective and safe method for treating patients with recurrent transudative PE in CKD.
Key words: pleural effusion, betadine, chemical pleurodesis, chronic kidney disease.
QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH THE LOWER EXTREMITIES VARICOSE VEINS
V. N. Nikolenko, I. A. Vinokurоv, S. N. Odinokova, G. V. Mnatsakanyan, R. Kh. Belkharoeva
Relevance.The wide prevalence of the lower extremities varicose veins and the variety of methods for its surgical correction, necessitate a comparative assessment of the quality of life of patients after various methods of surgical treatment.
The aim is to assess the quality of life of patients with the lower extremities varicose veins, depending on the surgical treatment method.
Materials and methods. This study included 94 patients with the lower extremities varicose veins of stage C2 - C4 according to CEAP. 28 (30%) men and 66 (70%) women aged 23 to 78 years. Patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of surgical intervention: 30 people - phlebectomy, 34 people - Endovenous Laser Ablation, 30 people - Endovenous Radiofrequency Obliteration. To assess the quality of life, the CIVIQ2 questionnaire was used, translated into Russian, and adapted for patients.
Results and conclusions. Before surgery, 60% of patients experience the pain of varying intensity in the lower extremities in everyday life; 76% of patients report physical activity limitations; 26% report violations of the psychoemotional state against the background of varicose veins; 35% of patients experience social discomfort.
On the 1st day after phlebectomy, there is a deterioration in the quality of life indicators: physical activity and psychoemotional state. Pain is reduced, and social activity does not change.
The use of endovenous methods demonstrates the following dynamics in the quality of life of patients on the first day after treatment: an increase in pain indicators, physical activity, lack of dynamics in the psycho-emotional state, and an increase in the rate of restriction of social activity. In 3 month period, all methods to varying degrees demonstrate positive dynamics concerning improving the quality of life of patients.
Keywords: varicose disease, chronic venous insufficiency, quality of life assessment, phlebectomy, Endovenous Laser Ablation, Endovenous Radiofrequency Obliteration.
THE ROLE OF ACTIVATION OF SOLUBLE TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-Α RECEPTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMORBID PATHOLOGY: CHRONIC HEART FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND OSTEOPOROSIS
Shilov S.N., Berezikova E.N., Uzakov O.J., Samsonova E.N., Safronov I.D., Popova A.A., Yakovleva I.V., Efremov A.V., Schmidt G.,Teplyakov A.T., Grakova E.V.
Objective. To study the clinical and pathogenetic relationship between the risk of developing heart failure (CHF), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and osteoporosis with the level of activation of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α 1 and type 2 receptors (TNF-α-SR1 and SR2) and osteoprotegerin, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of bisphosphonate therapy in postmenopausal women.
Materials and methods. The study included 178 women aged 50 to 65: 48 women with CHF and type 2 diabetes (group 1), 93 patients with osteoporosis and CHF (group 2), 37 women with osteoporosis, CHF and type 2 diabetes type (group 3). The control group consisted of 35 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years old, without clinical and instrumental signs of the pathology of the cardiovascular system and osteoporotic process. To determine the bone mineral density, an X-ray study was used by the method of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Determination of the concentration of TNF-α-SR1 and TNF-α-SR2 receptors, osteoprotegerin in the blood serum was carried out by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis. Women with osteoporosis (n = 48) received bisphosphonates.
Results. Concentrations of TNF-α-SR1 and TNF-α-SR2 in groups 1-3 were higher (p <0.01) than levels in the control group. It was also found that the levels of both receptors were significantly higher in group 3 compared to patients in groups 1 and 2. TNF-α-SR1 levels TNF-α-SR2 were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4) according to the increase in the concentration of these markers. For TNF-α-SR2, there was an increasing gradient in risk, with the odds ratio (OR) of cardiovascular events increasing from 1.43 to 7.50, but the risk was statistically significant only for Q3-Q4. OR increased for TNF-α-SR1 levels significantly for Q2-Q4 compared to Q1. The cumulative incidence of the combined endpoint of adverse cardiovascular events decreased with bisphosphonate therapy by 24% (p=0.01), reflecting the beneficial effect of these on the regression of associated cardiovascular pathology.
Conclusion. Postmenopausal women with elevated levels of soluble TNF-α-SR1 and SR2 receptors are diagnosed with an increased risk of developing unfavorable cardiovascular pathology associated with impaired bone mineral density. The purpose of bisphosphonates prevents bone metabolic disturbances, reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
Keywords: tumor necrosis factor-α receptors; osteoprotegerin; comorbidity; heart failure; diabetes; osteoporosis; bisphosphonates.
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ABSOLUTELY DRAINLESS PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTRIPSY
F.Yu. Yuldashev, F.R. Nasirov, J.Kh. Mirkhamidov
The presence of drains in the urinary tract, installed in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, is fraught with a number of complications and causes inconvenience for the patient. Absolutely drainless percutaneous nephrolithotripsy can significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, reduce the need for analgesics in the postoperative period, and reduce the length of hospital stay and the cost of medical services.
Key words: urolithiasis, endoscopic treatment, complications.